When the HIV-specific immune response begins, symptoms of seroconversion develop and viral load falls. Rapid initial clearance of virus has been found to be predictive of a lower viral set point, prolonged virus suppression, and a decreased risk of AIDS. 14 The viral load during primary infection may be related to the severity of symptoms during primary infection. The level at which viral load subsequently stabilises is known as the viral set point and both the speed with which the set point is reached and its level are predictive of the speed of progression to AIDS. 15
Thalidomide has been used by Brazilian physicians as the drug of choice for the treatment of severe ENL since 1965, and by 1996, at least 33 cases of thalidomide embryopathy were recorded in people born in Brazil after 1965.  Since 1994, the production, dispensing, and prescription of thalidomide have been strictly controlled, requiring women to use two forms of birth control and submit to regular pregnancy tests. Despite this, cases of thalidomide embryopathy continue,   with at least 100 cases identified in Brazil between 2005 and 2010.  million thalidomide pills were distributed throughout Brazil in this time period, largely to poor Brazilians in areas with poor access to healthcare, and these cases have occurred despite the controls.