By SDS-PAGE and peptide mass fingerprinting, Ishitani et al. (2003) characterized human embryonic kidney cell nuclear proteins that interacted with purified AF-1 of AR. Proteins that interacted with AF-1 included nuclear RNA-binding protein NRB54 (NONO; 300084 ), polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF, or SFPQ; 605199 ), paraspeckle protein-1 (PSP1, or PSPC1; 612408 ), and PSP2 (RBM14; 612409 ), which are assumed to be involved in pre-mRNA processing. Binding of NRB54 to AF-1 was ligand dependent, and AF-1 function was potentiated by NRB54.
Neural injections of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) were applied to males of both groups to test for neurogenesis . Analysis showed that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone regulated adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was regulated through the androgen receptor in the wild-type male rats, but not in the TMF male rats. To further test the role of activated androgen receptors on AHN, flutamide , an antiandrogen drug that competes with testosterone and dihydrotestosterone for androgen receptors , and dihydrotestosterone were administered to normal male rats. Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells.
Drugs can be added and removed from this list by WADA annually, although not all of the banned substances are explicitly named. Caroline Hatton, PhD , a sports anti-doping science consultant, told in a Mar. 12, 2010 email that "A key concept in prohibited lists is that they avoid being finite. Instead of listing all banned drugs one by one, they list entire drug classes and name drugs merely as examples. This is to keep users who took designer drugs from claiming that they didn't break the rules because the drugs they took weren't listed."